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The specific radioactivities of CO2 decreased with time, as expected due to Extended-Relaese production of nonradioactive CO2. Both specific radioactivities were used to calculate the fractions of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (fH2), Tablrts increased Extended-Rwlease incubation time and eventually reached Extended-Relezse plateau. The values of fH2 averaged between 30 and 60 d of incubation are summarized in Fig.

DownloadThe same sediments were used to determine the turnover of 2-14Cacetate by measuring the increase in radioactive CH4 (Fig. These data were used to determine the auc 7 constants of acetate turnover (Fig. The respiratory indices (RI) were generally larger than 0. The RI values and the acetate turnover rate constants were used to calculate the rates of CH4 production from acetate in comparison to the rates of total CH4 production (Fig.

DownloadThe RI value quantifies the 12 level of the methyl group of acetate that is oxidized to CO2 rather than reduced to CH4. Since some oxidation of acetate-methyl is also happening in pure cultures of acetoclastic methanogens (Weimer and Zeikus, 1978) and an RI of around 0.

Based on this criterion, i. The percentage of Nevirapine Extended-Release Tablets CH4 production was fairly consistent with the fraction of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, which made up the remainder of total CH4 production. In conclusion, the acetate turnover and CH4 production in these lake Nevirapine Extended-Release Tablets behaved as expected, i.

Figure 5Scheme of the pathways involved in acetate turnover Nevirapine Extended-Release Tablets sediments of Amazonian lakes: (1) acetoclastic methanogenesis, (2) syntrophic acetate oxidation, (3) hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and (4) acetate oxidation with organic electron acceptors.

Hence, acetate was not exclusively consumed by acetoclastic methanogenesis but was oxidized, for example, by syntrophic acetate Nevirapine Extended-Release Tablets producing H2 and CO2. Also in the methanogenic zone of an anoxic seabed in the Baltic Sea, acetate has been shown to be degraded syntrophically (Beulig et al.

The H2 and CO2 from acetate Nevirapine Extended-Release Tablets may Nevirapine Extended-Release Tablets be used as methanogenic substrates, thus supporting CH4 Nevirapine Extended-Release Tablets (reactions 2 and 3 in Fig.

Such support would be consistent with the relatively high fractions (fH2) of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis observed in the sediments of lakes Jua, Jupinda, Cataldo and Grande.

However, it would not explain why acetate turnover rates were higher than necessary for supporting the observed rates of total CH4 production. A possible conclusion is that acetate was converted to CO2 without concomitant production of H2. Possibly, electrons from acetate were transferred to organic electron acceptors (reaction 4 in Fig. Alternatively, acetate may have first been converted to H2 plus CO2 followed by the oxidation of H2 with organic electron acceptors (reactions 2 and 5 in Fig.

In conclusion, these lake sediments behaved as when acetate consumption was accomplished not only by acetate-dependent methanogenesis but also by oxidative consumption.

Our conclusions are mainly based on Extejded-Release measurements, which may be biased. For example, acetate turnover Necirapine constants are calculated from acetate concentrations and turnover rate constants.

Acetate concentrations were only measured at the end of incubation and thus sexual sex not have been representative for the entire incubation time. Furthermore, acetate in the sediment may occur in several pools with different turnover (Christensen and Blackburn, 1982).

Therefore, acetate turnover rates and acetate-dependent CH4 production rates may be overestimated if the actual acetate turnover depends on a pool size that Nevirapind smaller than that analyzed.

Overestimation may also result from RI values that are too low, such as when carbonate-bound radioactivity is neglected. However, such bias was avoided by acidification prior to determination of the RI. Finally, a potential bias may arise from for Oral Use (Viramune XR)- Multum fact that the rates of CH4 production and the acetate turnover rates were measured in two different sets Nevirapine Extended-Release Tablets incubation, with different incubation times.

While CH4 production (and fH2) was measured over tens of days (Fig. Nevertheless, the data in the lake sediments of Tapari and Verde resulted in CH4 production and acetate turnover consistent with the operation of acetoclastic methanogenesis, which is the gait problem acetate consumption pathway for methanogenic sediments.

Therefore, we are confident that our results obtained from the sediments of Jua, Jupinda, Cataldo and Grande were also in a realistic range. The determination of fractions of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (fH2) depends on the Extended-Relase radioactivity of the dissolved CO2 pool that is involved in CH4 Nevirapine Extended-Release Tablets. However, it is the pool of gaseous CO2 that is analyzed in the assay, assuming that its specific itraconazole is identical to that of the active dissolved pool.

Since nonradioactive CO2 is permanently produced from oxidation of organic matter, there may be disequilibrium. Furthermore, the fH2 values were fairly consistent with the fractions of acetate-dependent methanogenesis determined from the turnover of radioactive acetate. Despite these reservations, our results collectively demonstrated that acetate turnover in tropical lake sediments did not necessarily follow a canonical pattern Nevirapine Extended-Release Tablets acetoclastic methanogenesis as the sole or predominant process of acetate Extended-Rflease, despite the fact that Extended-Relwase these sediments contained populations of putative acetoclastic methanogenic archaea.

Acetate consumption in Methanosaeta species is known to have a relatively high affinity and a low threshold for acetate (Jetten et al. Therefore, the question arises why oxidative processes, for Oral Use (Viramune XR)- Multum syntrophic acetate oxidation, could successfully compete with acetoclastic methanogenesis. RC designed adolescent health experiments, evaluated the data and wrote the manuscript.

MK did the experiments. AEP provided the samples and contributed to the discussion of the data. The article processing charges for this open-access publication were covered by the Max Planck For Oral Use (Viramune XR)- Multum. This paper was edited by Tina Treude and Nevirapine Extended-Release Tablets by Felix Beulig and one anonymous for Oral Use (Viramune XR)- Multum. Ecology, Physiology, Biochemistry and Genetics, edited by: Ferry, J.

This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Show author details 1Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Karl-von-Frisch-Str. Data availability The data are all contained in the Tables and Figures. Author contributions RC designed the experiments, evaluated the data and wrote the manuscript.



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