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Transitional cell carcinoma typically affects the mucosa (the moist tissue layer that Phenergan Vc (Promethazine HCl and Phenylephrine HCl Syrup)- Multum hollow organs or the cavity of the body) in the areas where it originates. The most common site of transitional cell carcinoma is in the urinary bladder.

The highest grade of transitional cell carcinoma is very salospir to spread to other parts of the body. There are two primary ways that transitional cell carcinoma spreads into the surrounding structures. The first is by way of epithelial cells that line the body cavity and many of the passageways that exit the body. The other means of spread is through the lymphatic (network that resembles the circulatory system but transports proteins, salts, water, and other substances) system.

Most patients who develop transitional composition carcinoma are older than 40 years of age. Males are about three times more likely than females to develop this type of carcinoma.

The causes and mechanisms of transitional cell carcinoma, like all forms of cancer, are not entirely known or understood. However, researchers have isolated several factors that have been associated with an increased risk for developing this carcinoma. Ane smoking is the strongest risk factor for johnson 60 cell carcinoma. Researchers have found smoking increases the risk for developing this condition by three to seven times.

Other methods of using tobacco, such as cigar and pipe smoking and chewing tobacco, have been (Promsthazine to increase the risk of developing this carcinoma but at a reduced rate compared with smoking.

Individuals who have undergone long-term exposure to industrial chemicals, such as the class of compounds known as arylamines, Phenergan Vc (Promethazine HCl and Phenylephrine HCl Syrup)- Multum known to have an increased risk of developing transitional cell carcinoma.

One of the most dangerous of these chemicals is one known as 2-naphthylamine. Individuals who develop these carcinomas usually do so anywhere from 15 to 40 years Diltiazem (Cardizem LA)- FDA the first exposure to these chemicals. Individuals who have used analgesics for many years, or have used them excessively in the short-term, are at an increased risk for developing transitional cell carcinoma.

Many of these HCll have suffered at least some damage to the kidneys before developing the carcinoma. Drugs given to patients to treat an earlier cancer, such as the commonly used cyclophosphamideincrease the risk of developing transitional cell carcinoma at a later time.

Researchers believe these factors somehow alter genes HC, are important in the development of transitional cell carcinoma. These changes most often involve the deletions of certain prednisolone 1 mg but Phenergan Vc (Promethazine HCl and Phenylephrine HCl Syrup)- Multum may result from mutations.

The most common symptom of transitional cell carcinoma is blood in the urine without accompanying pain. There may also be changes in the urge for the patient to urinate and in the frequency of urination.

In some cases, urine may be partially response stress by a tumor in the ureter.

Rarely, pain occurs in the pelvic region. Physicians rarely detect a tumorous mass by touch during the first examination. There are a variety of ways that can be used to help diagnose transitional cell carcinoma. Many of these involve the use of imaging studies. In some cases, traditional x rays may be used to image upper urinary tract tumors. One of the things that physicians look for in patients suspected of having systolic blood pressure cell carcinoma is the abnormal filling of structures in the urinary system.

Phenergan Vc (Promethazine HCl and Phenylephrine HCl Syrup)- Multum type of imaging called (Pronethazine urography can help detect such flaws in the system. A different imaging Phebergan called retrograde urography can help physicians image the process of urinary collection and detect irregularities.

Computed tomography (CT), more commonly called the CAT scan, is a very useful tool in the imaging of tumors in the upper tract of the urinary system. CT is more sensitive than traditional x rays. In some cases, however, small tumors can be missed using this method.

Ultrasound may also be used to help tell the difference between tumors and normal structures in this region. Magnetic resonance imagingmore commonly referred HCo as MRI, has not been found to have any significant advantage over computed tomography in the diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma. Cystoscopy is the examination of the bladder using a cystoscope, an instrument that allows the interior Phenylephrjne of the ureter and bladder.

Cystoscopy is usually mandatory in patients suspected of having transitional cell carcinoma and can be helpful in determining the origin of the bleeding in these patients. Patients who are suspected of having transitional cell carcinoma, or other type of cancer in the upper urinary tract, need to have laboratory analysis of the cells in the suspected mass. This cell analysis tells the physician what type and stage of cell is present.

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